Rural Community College Initiative

Community College Resources

American Association of Community Colleges


Community Leadership through Community-Based Programming: The Role of the Community College

Edgar J. Boone and Associates (1997)

The Community College Presidency at the Millennium

George B. Vaughan and Iris M. Weisman (1998)
Available from AACC Community College Press

Outsourcing of Instruction at Community Colleges

Community College Research Center

Working Knowledge: Work-Based Learning and Education Reform

Community College Research Center

Land-Grant Universities

As the United States began to expand westward in the late 1800s, an interest in a more scientific approach to agriculture, the nation's largest industry, began to emerge. In 1862 the federal government established the United States Department of Agriculture, and realizing a need for more up-to-date and accurate information in the production and marketing of agricultural products, the USDA introduced the agricultural and mechanical college.The Morrill Act of 1862 established these colleges nationwide. Called the Land-Grant System, this class of colleges was originally endowed by grants of public lands. In 1887, the Hatch Act established the agricultural experiment station system, and in 1890, the Second Morrill Act provided for direct annual appropriations to each state to support its Land-Grant college.

The existence of Land-Grant colleges and experiment stations resulted in an abundance of knowledge that needed to be made available to the farmers and their communities. In 1914, the Smith-Lever Act established the cooperative Extension network. Today, Land-Grant Universities are an evolution of their former beings. Experiment Stations conduct relevant research, while Cooperative Extension Services provide research-based information, educational programs and technology transfer focused on issues and needs of the people, enabling them to make informed decisions about their economic, social and cultural well-being.

Land-Grant Partners

Additional Resources